FTIR Spectrum Characteristic of Treated Spent Oil with Fungi

 

Vinoth, A. 1, Balakrishnan, V. 1, Kalaivani, R. 1, Madhanraj, P. 2* and N. Nadimuthu3

1Department of  Biotechnology, Thanthai Hans Roever College of  Arts and Science,

Perambalur - 621 212, Tamil Nadu.

2Indian Biotrack Research Institute, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.

3P.G. Department of Plant Science, Avvaiyar Government College for Women,

Karaikal 609 602, Puducherry U.T. India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ibrilab@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Oil pollution is worldwide major problem in every environment and hence the world is need of a perfect solution for prevention or recovery so, the present investigation was carried out to detect the spent lubricant oil degradation potentional of indigenous fungi in lab level by measuring the growth and analysis the treated sample using FTIR. Soil sample was randomly collected in the different location at railway tracks in Thanjavur junction soil sample are serially and 10-2 is used for plating technique in PDA medium. After incubation the isolates were obtained and they are Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Oil degrading ability was detected supplying raw spent oil in PDA medium and incoprporated in PD broth at the concentration of (5%.10%, 15% and 20%), detection shows that no fungal cored use raw oil as source of nutrient. In PDA plate’s visual detection of zone due to the degradation was noticed. It was maximum by Aspergillus flavus follwed by Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger. In PD broth supplemented with different spent oil concentration (5%,10%,15% and 20%), after 14 days of incubation (30°C), as a visual the biomass of each fungal culture was determined the biomass of different species of fungi in different concentration oil showed growth but with variation  the higher mycelial biomass was recorded by Aspergillus flavus. The FT-IR analysis results shows that is major difference in the peak formation between the tested samples which shows that fungal species has utilized or degraded the oil hydrocarbon. Differently as per their metabolize activity.

 

KEYWORDS:

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The need for motor oil has increased throughout the years with the increase of cars on the road worldwide. As people buy motor oil for their car’s maintenance, they may dispose of the oil improperly. Used motor oil is sometimes dumped down drain sewers, disrupting the operations at wastewater treatment plants. When motor oil is dumped on vacant lots harmful material percolates through the soil contaminating underground water resources. Illegal dumping of oil reduces water penetration in soils, slows photosynthesis of plants, which lessens oxygen supplies for aquatic life, and threatens our natural resources.

Motor oil slowly breaks down, but this compound may contain toxic substances such as benzene, lead, zinc, and cadmium. A gallon of oil ruins the taste of water for fifty people in a year.

 

The problem of environmental pollution with anthropogenic hydrocarbons and their influence on natural ecosystems calls for comprehensive investigation. Crude oil consists of a number of rather complicated components, which are toxic and can exert side effects on environmental systems. Oil pool contains aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, for example, crude oil consists of alkanes 15 -60 %, naphthenes 30-60 %,aromatics 3-30% and asphaltenes 6 % by weight (Speight, 1990).

 

Petroleum contains a wide range of organic compounds that are nutrients for microorganisms. Petroleum degradation is primarily an oxidation process, although there is some evidence for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (Gutnick and Rosenberg, 1977).

 

Bioremediation owing to the problems associated with physical, mechanical and chemical methods, there is a need for a safer and less expensive approach to remediation of polluted environments. Bioremediation is a means of cleaning up contaminated environments by exploiting the diverse metabolic abilities of microorganisms to convert contaminants to harmless products by mineralization, generation of carbon (IV) oxide and water, or by conversion into microbial biomass (Baggott, 1993; Mentzer and Ebere, 1996).

 

The advantages associated with fungal bioremediation lay primarily in the versatility of the technology and its cost efficiency compared to other remediation technologies (such as incineration, thermal desorption, extraction) (Aust, 1990). Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbon usually requires the cooperation of more than a single species. This is particularly true in pollutants that are made up of many different compounds such as crude oil or petroleum and to complete mineralization to CO2 and H2O is desired. Individual microorganisms can metabolize only a limited range of hydrocarbon substrates, so assemblages of mixed populations with overall broad enzymatic capacities are required to bring the rate and extent of petroleum biodegradation further (Sorkhoh et al., 1995).

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Properties of lubricant engine oil used in this present study:

 

PH= 11

Colour: Blackish Brown.

 

Spent oil degradation by different fungal isolates:

All the fungal species isolated in the present study were screened for spent lubricant oil utilization. The test was carried out by supplying spent lubricant oil alone as a raw source and also mixed with the Potato Dextrose broth medium in different concentration. For conducting experiment the spent oil was precured from Venkateswara Garrage, Thanjavur.

 

Experiment-1:

Potato Dextrose agar supplemented with different concentration of used lubricant oil (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) sterilized. About 1 cm2 piece from fungi each isolates were inoculated in Potato Dextrose agar, after incubation of seven long days at 30 ºC, fungal isolates was studied for the Zone formation which showed the utilization of spent oil. The Diameter of degradation Zone was measured in Millimeter and recorded.

 

Experiment-2:

In a flasks of 250ml capacity 100ml of Potato dextrose broth was taken and to this 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of the spent oil was added. The flask were then cotton pluged and autoclaved. After bringing the flasks to room temperature, the flasks were inoculated with the fungal species. The flask s after inoculation was incubated at room temperature for a week long period for each concentration and each species duplicates were maintained.

 

Growth Measurement (Biomass assay):

As the end of the incubation, the mycelial mat was harvested and weighed using an electronic balance to find out the wet weight of the mycellium. One wet mycelial biomass was accounted as a measure growth of the fungi.

 

FT -IR Analysis of the filtrate:

The supernatant was taken in the conical flask (50ml) and added 10ml of HNO3:HClO4 (1:2) solution (50ml) and heated for half an hour. Solutions were filtered through Whatman 1 filter paper and volume was made to 50mLby adding distilled water.  The sample was analysed by FTIR spectroscopy for detection of utilized hydrocarbons.

 

RESULTS:

Identification of Fungi:

In the present study three fungal species were identified Viz Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. The result showed that the genus Aspergillus is alone present in the oil contaminated sites of the railways at Thanjavur.

 

Spent oil degradation by different Fungal:

In the Potato Dextrose agar supplemented with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% concentration spent  lubricant oil, the maximum degradation clean zone was caused by Aspergillus flavus inoculated plate. The zone of diameter was 29mm, 24mm, 22mm and 20mm for above said concentrations respectively. Degradation of  Aspergillus niger and A.terrus was 19 mm, 17 mm, 15 mm and 12mm and -20 mm, 18 mm, 14 mm and 11 mm respectively. (Table 1)

 

Growth (mycelial Biomass) of fungi:

All the fungal species showed growth in all spent lubricant oil in PD broth at all concentration, but their biomass differed greatly. At 5% concentration A. terrus  showed the maximum biomass  11.1gms, followed by A. flavus  6.8 gms and  A. niger  5.8 gms. At 10% concentration the growth was maximum by A.niger 11.8 gms, followed by A.flavus 11.5gms and A.terrus 8.8 gms. At 15% concentration A. niger showed maximum mycelial biomass of 27.5gms, followed by A.terrus 18.9 gms and A.flavus 15.5 gms. At 20% concentration maximum growth was noted by mycelial biomass of A.flavus 22 gms, followed by A. niger 18 gms and A.terrus 11.9 gms. The trend was increasing constantly the biomass with increasing concentration of oil by A.flavus, increasing up to 15% and degreasing after wards by A.niger and flucteatly by A.terrus (Table 2)

FT -IR Analysis for spent oil degradation:

The FT-IR analysis of untreated spent lubrication oil revealed Peak value of  3411.16 cm-1indicating the presence of hydroxyl stretching,  2948.21 cm-1, 2920.69 cm-1 and 2852.02 cm-1 indicating the presence of C-H stretching, 1457.98 indicating unidentified, 1376.66 indicates nitro groups and 721.74  cm-1 showed the presence of alkyl halides

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus terrus after 14 days Showed new Peak value in 5% concentration at 1460.51 cm-1 corresponding CH2 bend in Alkanes .Respectively in both 10% and 15% concentration identical results are same in functional groups and minor changes in the peak values. New band observed 1644.28 cm-1 corresponding C=C stretch (isolated) in Alkenes. In 20% concentration 3648.89 cm-1 corresponding O-H stretch in Alcohols. 1683.97cm-1 and 1653.17 these peak values shows the presence of C=C stretch (isolated) in Alkenes. 1540.37cm-1, 1507.04cm-1 and 1521.25cm-1 these peak values are shown the presence of N-H bend in Amines.

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus flavus after 14 days of showed formation of new peaks in 5% concentration at 1649.76 cm-1 corresponding C=C stretch (isolated) in Alkenes, 1153.93cm-1 this peak value is shows the formation of different functional groups such as C-O stretch in Alcohols, C-O-C stretch (dialkyl) in Ethers, C-C stretch in ketones, C-O stretch in Anhydrides, C-N stretch (alkyl) in Amines, C-F stretch in Alkyl halides and P=O in phosphine oxides. 967.66cm-1 this peak value indicate the presence of PH bend in phosphines.

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus flavus after 14 days of indicated that formation of new functional groups are observed compare to the control in 10% concentration the functional groups are Alkenes, alcohols, ethers, ketones, anhydrides, amines, alkyl halides, phosphine oxides and phosphines.

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus flavus after 14 days of microbial incubation indicated that formation of new functional groups are observed compare to the control in 15% concentration the functional groups are Alkenes, amines , amides, alcohols, ethers, ketones, anhydrides, amines, alkyl halides, phosphine oxides and phosphines. In control sample 3411.16 this peak value is absence in this Aspergillus flavus treated sample.

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus flavus after 14 days of microbial incubation 20% concentration indicated that absence of amines and amide functional groups.

 

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus niger after 14 days of showed that formation of new functional group was observed compared with to the control in 5% concentration the functional group is Alkenes.

The FT-IR spectrum of treated sample with Aspergillus nigers after 14 days of showed the formation of new functional groups are observed compared to the control in 10%, 15% and 20% concentration the functional groups are alkenes, amines, alcohols, ethers, ketones, anhydrides, alkyl halides, phosphine oxides, phosphines and sulfonates. (Table 3 – 6; Fig 1).

 

DISCUSSION:

The dominance of petroleum products in the world economy creates the conditions for distributing large amounts of complex compounds consist of hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules, and a huge volume of oily sludge, a carcinogenic and a potent immunotoxicant   (Propst et al .,1999; Ojumu et al., 2004).

 

Bahuguna  et al. (2011) Physico chemical analysis of PAHs contaminated road side soil shows the following result, the soil temperature ranged from 38 ° C to 43 ° C, pH 6.80 to 8.10, moisture contents 0.4721.864 mg/g of soil. The inorganic phosphates, nitrates and total organic contents ranged 0.0300.499 mg/g, 0.2217.112μg/g, and 75.25270.3mg/g of soil respectively. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 21.81 to 75.25 μg/g of soils, where as bacterial load ranged from 5X10 2 (log10 2.698) to 2.1X10 5 (log10 5.324) CFU/g of soil at various road side  soil samples. It was noted that the soil samples from automobile repair work stations located in the market places having heavy transport activities demonstrated significantly higher total organic carbon, total PAHs contents and soil temperature while showing lower moisture contents and bacterial counts.

 

Al-Nasrawi (2012) studied the sand samples contaminated with oil spill from Pensacola beach (Gulf of Mexico) and isolated sixteen fungal strains and confirmed four fungal strains for biodegradation ability of crude oil. Uzoamaka et al., (2009) isolated eight fungi from waste oil soil and reported the potentials for hydrocarbon biodegradation which include A. versicolor, A.niger, A.flavus, Syncephalastrum spp., Trichoderma spp., Neurospora sitophila, Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor spp. These findings compared with the present study have yielded higher number of species. This difference may be to the reasons as stated by Westlake et al., (1974) the effect of oil on microbial populations that depend upon the chemical composition of the oil and on the species of microorganisms present. Populations of some microbes increase; typically, such microbes use the petroleum hydrocarbons as nutrients. The same crude oil can favor different genera at different temperatures.

 

Biodegradation or bioremediation is a means of cleaning up contaminated environments by exploiting the diverse metabolic abilities of microorganisms to convert contaminants to harmless products by mineralization, generation of carbon (IV) oxide and water, or by conversion into microbial biomass (Baggott, 1993; Mentzer and Ebere, 1996).

Batelle (2000) and Ojo (2005) Fungi have been found to be better degraders of petroleum than traditional bioremediation techniques including bacteria, and although hydrocarbon degraders may be expected to be readily isolated from a petroleum oil- associated environment, the same degree of expectation may be anticipated for microorganisms isolated from a totally unrelated environment 

 

Recently, many researcher studied and reported  the role of fungi in biodegradation process of petroleum products and the most common fungi which have been recorded as a biodegrades belongs to following genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cephalosporium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pleurotus, Polyporus, Rhizopus, Rhodotolura, Saccharomyces, Talaromyces and Torulopsis (Gesinde et al 2008; Obire and Anyanwu 2009; Adekunle and Adebambo 2007; Adekunle et al 2004) .

 

Al-Nasrawi (2012) have isolated fungi belong to Aspergillus niger with higher activity followed by Penicillium documbens, Cochliobolus lutanus and Fusarium solani. Aspergillus niger recorded the highest weight loss of 8.6%, Penicillium documbens (7.9 %) and Cochliobolus lutanus (4.7%) whereas the lowest weight loss was demonstrated by Fusarium solani strain 421502 (1.9%).

 

Adekunle  and Adebambo (2007) studied the rate of fungal growth in  media containing crude oil compared with inoculated media without crude oil, demonstrated that  media containing crude oil shows an increase in rates of fungal growth in the this might be due to the fact that fungi use crude oil as a substrate for their survival growth using extra cellular enzymes to break down the recalcitrant hydrocarbon molecules, by dismantling the long chains of hydrogen and carbon, thereby, converting petroleum into simpler forms or products that can be absorbed for the growth and nutrition of the fungi .

 

Obire and Anyanwu (2009) studied the biodegradation of oil of fungi and reported that, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium species were the most efficient metabolizers of hydrocarbons.  In this present study  the  obtained  result also correlates with Obire and Anyanwu (2009) that  the isolated fungi mostly belongs to Aspergillus.Spp Viz Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terrus and Aspergillus flavus.

 

Adhering these findings the present study also yield three species of fungi Viz  Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. While all showed spent oil degradation ability by the development of clear zone formation in PDA plates incorporated with the spent oil. Further the growth was high towards the increasing concentration of spent oil from 6.8 gms to 22 gms by A.flavus at 5 to 20% concentrations respectively.

 

A. niger showed the increased growth up to 15% of supplement of oil and sharp degrease afterwards. While the A.terrus   showed peak and fall ie alternative concentration. This may be due to the differences in the metabolize activity of the fungi as point out by   Potin et al (2004). Further observation made by Atlas and Cerniglia (1995) that the fungi are capable of metabolizing some aromatic compounds, they do not have the enzymes required for transforming the co-oxidation products. This removal value increased up to two-fold with the biostimulation treatment, but the PHAs remotion was even 6-, 7- and 8-fold times higher when bioaugmentation treatments with Rhizopus sp., P. funiculosum and A. sydowii were applied respectively, ends support to the present study.

 

In a taxonomic study of fungi, by Nyns et al. (1969) found that hydrocarbon assimilation was also found  most common in the orders Mucorales and Monilales, as well as in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (order Eurotiales). Furthermore, in comparison with eight other genera, Aspergillus and Penicillium species were the most efficient metabolizers of     hydrocarbons (Obire et al., 2008).

 

FTIR Spectroscopy is a technique based on the determination of the interaction between an IR radiation and a sample that can be solid, liquid or gaseous. It measures the frequencies at which the sample absorbs, and also the intensities of these absorptions. The frequencies are helpful for the identification of the sample’s chemical make-up due to the fact that chemical functional groups are responsible for the absorption of radiation at different frequencies. The concentration of component can be determined based on the intensity of the absorption. The spectrum is a two-dimensional plot in which the axes are represented by intensity and frequency of sample absorption.

 

The infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum extends from the visible to the microwave

 

Infrared radiation is divided into:

 

- Near (NIR, ν = 10,000 – 4,000 cm-1);

 

- Middle (MIR, ν = 4,000 – 200 cm-1) and

 

- Far (FIR, ν = 200 – 10 cm-1).

 

Because all compounds show characteristic absorption/emission in the IR spectral region and based on this property they can be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively using FT-IR spectroscopy. Today FT-IR instruments are digitalized and are faster and more sensitive than the older ones. FT-IR spectrometers can detect over a hundred volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from industrial and biogenic sources. Gas concentrations in stratosphere and troposphere were determined using FT-IR spectrometers. FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with other spectroscopic techniques such as AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) have been used to assess the impact of industrial and natural activities on air quality (Childers et al., 2001; Puckrin et al., 1996).

 

In the present study the FT IR spectrum of the treated sample of the spent lubricant oil revealed the reduction in the hyrocarbon components alkenes, amines, alcohols, ethers, ketones, anhydrides, alkyl halides, phosphine oxides, phosphines and sulfonates and retention time and confirmed the utilization of hydrocarbon by these fungal species. Thus the native soil isolates from railway tracks are having degrading the potential and they can be employing effectively for bioremedation of oil pollution of the culture conditions are optimized.

 

Table 1 Spent lubricant oil degradation by fungal isolates at different concentration

Name Of The Organism

Diameter of the Zone (mm)

5 %

10 %

15 %

20 %

Control

 

Aspergillus terrus

20

18

14

11

0

Aspergillus flavus

29

24

22

20

0

Aspergillus niger

19

17

15

12

0

 


 

Table 2 Growth (Mycelial Biomass) of fungal isolates in Potato Dextrose Broth supplemented with spent lubricant oil in different concentration

S.no

Name of the organism

 

 

Fungal Biomass(g)

Raw oil

1%

5%

10%

15%

20%

Positive control

1.

Aspergillus terrus

No growth

6.7g

11.1g

8.8

18.9

11.9

6.9

2.

Aspergillus flavus

No growth

7.0g

6.8g

11.5

15.5

22

7.3

3.

Aspergillus niger

No growth

6.3g

5.8

11.8

27.5

18

6.5

 

 


Table 3 FTIR Spectrum for UN treated Control Sample

Sample Name

Wave number (cm-1)

Molecular motion

Functional group

Control

3411.16

N-H stretch,

N-H stretch (1 per N-H)

Amides,

Amines

2948.21

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.69

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.02

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1457.98

unidentified

unidentified

1376.66

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.74

C-Cl stretch

Alkyl halides

 

Table 4 FTIR Spectrum for different concentration of Spent oil degraded by Aspergillus terreus

Sample Name

Wave number (cm-1)

Molecular motion

Functional group

5% Treated

Spent oil

 

3403.12

N-H stretch,

N-H stretch (1 per N-H)

Amides, Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.93

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.24

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1641.38

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1460.51

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.76

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.67

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

10% Treated

Spent oil

 

3392.66

N-H stretch, N-H stretch

(1 per N-H)

Amides, Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.96

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.27

C-H stretch

Alkanes

 

 

 

 

1644.28

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.83

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.67

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.63

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

15% Treated

Spent oil

3392.70

N-H stretch, N-H stretch (1 per N-H)

Amides, Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.26

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1652.50

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1459.26

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.73

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.62

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

20% Treated

Spent oil

 

 

3648.89

O-H stretch

Alcohols

2920.91

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.21

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1699.90

Un identified

Un identified

1683.97

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1653.17

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1558.77

N-H bend; N-H bend

Amines; Amides

1540.37

N-H bend

Amines

1507.04

N-H bend

Amines

1521.25

N-H bend

Amines

1489.31

Un identified

Un identified

1457.19

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1375.19

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

 

721.48

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

Table 5 FTIR Spectrum for different concentration of Spent oil degraded by Aspergillus flavus

Sample Name

Wave number

(cm-1)

Molecular motion

Functional group

5%Treated Spent oil

 

 

3408.42

N-H stretch, N-H stretch

(1 per N-H)

Amides, Amines

2953.69

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.93

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.22

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1649.76

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.25

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.01

-NO2

(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1334.73

-NO2

(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1153.93

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl); C-C stretch;C-O stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

967.66

PH bend

Phosphines

721.43

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

10% Treated Spent oil

3400.20

N-H stretch, N-H stretch

(1 per N-H)

Amides, Amines

2953.69

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.92

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.23

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1652.50

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.23

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1375.94

-NO2 (aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1153.93

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl);

C-C stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

970.40

PH bend

Phosphines

721.43

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

15%Treated Spent oil

2956.43

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.88

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.19

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1652.50

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1559.36

N-H bend; N-H bend

Amines; Amides

1457.21

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1375.81

-NO2 (aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1156.67

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl); C-C stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

964.92

PH bend

Phosphines

811.52

PH bend

Phosphines

721.12

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

20%

Treated Spent oil

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.91

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.22

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1460.90

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.81

-NO2 (aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.82

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

 

 

 

Table 6 FTIR Spectrum for different concentration of Spent oil degraded by Aspergillus niger

Sample Name

Wave number

 (cm-1)

Molecular motion

Functional group

5% Treated

Spent oil

3392.77

N-H stretch (1 per N-H bond)

Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.94

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.21

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1653.16

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.45

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.48

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

721.29

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

Treated 10% Spent oil

3397.46

N-H stretch (1 per N-H bond)

Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.87

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.17

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1688.11

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1655.24

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1507.03

N-H bend

Amines

1457.36

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.40

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1156.67

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl); C-C stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

967.66

PH bend

Phosphines

806.04

S-O stretch

Sulfonates

721.44

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

15%  Treated Spent oil

3391.99

N-H stretch (1 per N-H bond)

Amines

2950.95

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.87

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.17

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1682.63

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1652.50

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.30

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.27

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1156.67

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl); C-C stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

964.92

PH bend

Phosphines

808.78

S-O stretch

Sulfonates

721.51

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

20%  Treated Spent oil

2953.69

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2920.85

C-H stretch

Alkanes

2852.17

C-H stretch

Alkanes

1652.50

C=C stretch (isolated)

Alkenes

1457.26

CH2 bend

Alkanes

1376.17

-NO2(aliphatic)

Nitro groups

1151.19

C-O stretch; C-O-C stretch (dialkyl); C-C stretch; C-N stretch (alkyl); C-F stretch; P=O

Alcohols; Ethers; Ketones; Anhydrides; Amines; Alkyl halides; phosphine oxides

967.66

PH bend

Phosphines

811.52

PH bend

Phosphines

721.67

CH2 bend 4 (or) more

Alkanes

 

Fig (1) FTIR Spectrum for UN treated Control Sample

 

 


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Received on 21.11.2014          Modified on 30.11.2014

Accepted on 03.12.2014      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Research J.  Science and Tech. 6(4): Oct. - Dec.2014; Page 185-193

 

 

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