Analytical Study of Selected Physicochemical Characteristic of Surface and Underground Water Bodies At Ameri and Its Surrounding Areas

 

Milan Hait1*, Shivi Sharma1, Leena Sahu2 and Sangeeta Sharma3

1Dept. of Chemistry, Dr. C.V. Raman University, Kargi Road, Kota, Bilaspur, C.G.-495113. E-mail: milan_hait@yahoo.co.in

2Dept. of Pharmacy, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, C.G.

3Dept. of Biotechnology, Dr. C.V. Raman University, Kargi Road, Kota, Bilaspur, C.G.-495113.

 

 

ABSTRACT:

Analytical studies of some selected physicochemical parameter were made on the surface and underground water bodies at Ameri village and its surrounding areas. Ameri village is situated 3 km away from the Bilaspur city, Chhattisgarh. Samples were collected in the month of March’2010. Temperature, PH, E.C, TDS, D.O etc. were analyzed instantly in the sampling spot while T.S, TSS, TH, Alkalinity, D.O, BOD, COD, Cl, SO42−, NO3 were analyzed in the laboratory of pollution Control Board, Bilaspur, C.G. It was observed that temperature, TS, TDS, TSS, alkalinity, TH, BOD, COD, Cl, SO42− and NO3 have higher value than maximum permissible limit of IS: 10500. The elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells are consumed by people without treatment.

 

KEYWORDS: Physico-chemical parameter, Surface water, Underground water

 

INTRODUCTION:

Water is the most essential commodity for human consumption without it no life can exist. Water is the most abundant substance on the earth’s surface which may be present as ice, liquid or vapour. Approximately 71% of the earth surface is covered with water, mainly in the form of oceans. Around 2% of the water is present in glacier and ice caps. The actual fresh water is available for human consumption is around 1% of the total earth water. Ground and surface water used by man are of different characteristics. Ground water contains dissolved minerals from the soil layers through which it passes. Surface water contains a lot of organic matter and mineral nutrients1-3. Domestic waste includes human excreta, paper cloths, soap and detergents etc. these are the major part of water pollutants. Uncontrolled dumping of wastes of rural areas, towns and cities into the ponds, lake and stream of rivers, is being observed. Due to accumulation of sewage and other wastes into the water resources this is no longer remain recyclable; as a result their self regulatory capability is lost. The decomposition of these wastes is largely on aerobic process which in turn takes up more and more oxygen from water rendering it low oxygen content4-5.

 

Bilaspur city is the district head quarter of Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh. The average rain fall in this area is 1220 mm. Ameri village is situated western side of the Bilaspur City and 3 km away from the city centre.


Many companies big small have their manufacturing/ production units in an around Bilaspur. The ancillary, allied and support industries have also bloomed and flourished in the quest to meet the requirements of the changing times. However the last decade has seen large scale unregulated urbanization and residential and commercial expansion, over straining the water resources and generally defunct civic amenities. Due to huge industrialization of Bilaspur city and its surrounding air, water and soil are continuously polluted, so it is necessary to analyze the extent of pollutant present in the water of this area6.

 

MATERIAL AND METHOD:

We have selected some ponds and bore wells in Ameri village for our investigation. The analysis was carried out by the standard protocol7-18 as mentioned below. Sampling spots for water analysis were named as AP1, AP2, AP3 (for pond water) and BW1, BW2 and BW3 (for bore well water). Water samples were collected in 2 lit Polyethylene jerry canes previously soaked with 8M HNO3 and then cleaned with detergent followed by rinsing with double distilled water. The collected water samples were preserved in ice cooled chamber and kept in the dark room13-14. The entire chemicals used in the analysis were LOBA/BDH grade. Double distilled water was always used in the analysis and in all the solution preparation. All the glassware were graduated and calibrated, manufactured by Borosil, India.

 

The following parameters were analyzed using standard procedures; Temperature, pH, E.C, T.S, TDS, TSS, Alkalinity, D.O, BOD, COD, F, Cl, SO42−, NO3 etc. Some parameters like Temperature, PH, E.C, TDS, D.O etc. were analyzed instantly in the sampling spot and the others were analyzed in the laboratory of pollution Control Board, Bilaspur, C.G. The results are tabulated in the table 1 below. Temperature, pH, E.C, TDS and D.O were measured With Electronic India made nine parameter analyzer kit (Model No.172). Total hardness was determined by complexometric titration with standard EDTA as titrant in the presence of EBT indicator. TS was determined by gravimetrically while TSS was determined by subtracting TS and TDS. BOD was determined by incubation method and COD was determined by reflux method. Cl was determined by AgNO3 titration method using K2Cr2O7 as indicator (Vogel and Bassett, 1978). SO42− and NO3 were determined by spectrophotometrically (HACH DR/2010, UK).

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Around the Bilaspur City small and large scale industries are located. Owing to industrialization solid wastes, municipal and industrial sewage becoming contaminates different water system by different kind of pollution. Therefore we were taken this small project to assess the water quality status of suburban area of Bilaspur city, Ameri village. We were selected main water pond and tube well named AP1, AP2, AP3 and BW1, BW2, BW3   respectively. The results of the various selected parameters are discussed in the following heading:

 

Temperature: The temperatures were obtained from 28oC to 29oC. This temperature range was three times greater than their standard temperature 70C to 110C. The high temperature causes the high speed chemical reactions and low solubility of gaseous ion.

 

PH:  The PH was obtained from 6.77 to 7.67. This range clearly indicates that the nature of water is slightly acidic to slightly basic. This range is covered to the standard PH range 6.50 to 8.50 prescribed by the various water monitoring agencies  like ICMR, WHO, APHA and IS:10500.

 

Electrical Conductivity: The value was obtained from 1.16 to 1.69 in mho/cm. The maximum value was recorded on AP3 while minimum value was recorded on BW2. This value indicates the maximum amounts of solid wastes are dissolve in sample water.

 

TS:  All water samples contain the TS value above the permissible level, 1500 mg/L as per IS: 10500. The maximum value was recorded on AP2, 2160 mg/L while 1661 mg/L was noted as the minimum value on the sampling spot BW2. The high value of this parameter is due to dissolved solid materials.

 

TDS:  Its value was noted down from 1261 to 1961 mg/L as low and high value on sampling spot BW3 and AP1 respectively.

 

TSS: Its value is depended on the value of TS and TDS. The maximum, 519 mg/L and minimum value, 99 mg/L were noted on the sampling spot BW3 and AP1 respectively.

 

Alkalinity:  The sampling spot AP1, BW1 and BW2 showed above the permissible value 600 mg/L. The cause of higher values is due to dissolved of higher amount of OH ions.

 

Total Hardness (TH):  Its value was recorded from 521 Mg/L to 712 mg/L as low and high value on sampling spot BW3 and BW1 respectively. The higher values are due to impurities SO42−, Cl ions of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ etc.

 

D.O: The amount of D.O was found 2.8 mg/L to 4.0 mg/L as the minimum and maximum on BW3 and AP1 sampling spot. All water samples showed below the permissible limit as per IS: 10500, 5 mg/L. The low amount of oxygen in different collected water samples may be the cause of higher temperature and various type of oxygen consumer pollutant.

 

 


Table 1:  water quality at Ameri village

Parameter/ sampling spot

Pond water

Bore well water

IS: 10500 Limit

AP1

AP2

AP3

BW1

BW2

BW3

Temperature

28.7

28.6

28.5

29.0

28.9

28

 

PH

7.60

7.67

7.61

6.42

6.77

6.80

6.5-8.5

Conductivity

1.54

1.62

1.69

1.50

1.16

1.49

 

TS

2060

2160

1963

1860

1661

1780

500-2000

TDS

1961

1760

1862

1662

1340

1261

500-2000

TSS

99

400

101

198

321

519

20-50

Alkalinity

602

598

493

636

654

511

200-600

Total Hardness

688

612

554

712

621

521

300-600

D.O

4.0

3.80

3.1

2.9

3.1

2.8

5

B.O.D

9.8

7.1

10.5

6.8

5.9

8.7

5

C.O.D

10.05

12.01

14.05

13.50

11.11

12.05

10

F

1.45

1.00

1.23

1.35

1.21

1.29

0.5-1.5

Cl

441

1012

883

1121

1261

668

250-1000

SO42−

161

293

205

301

402

251

200-400

NO3

42

61

79

58

67

54

45

 

 


BOD:  The BOD value was recorded in the range of 5.9 to 10.5 mg/L on BW2 and AP3 respectively. These water samples were showed above the permissible limit prescribed by IS: 10500, 5mg/L. The conclusion after this experiment arises that the aquatic life is not possible.

 

COD:  The COD range was noted from 10.05 mg/L to 14.05 mg/L on the sampling spot AP1 and AP3 respectively. The high value may cause the presence of high content of carbonaceous particle and suspended particles in different water bodies.

 

F: It was measured by spectrophotometrically at 570 nm by preparing and comparing with standard curve. The result of this parameter was obtained under desirable level 1to 1.5 mg/L on sampling spot AP2 and AP1 respectively.

 

Cl: In our investigation, it was determined by titrimetric method. Some water samples were showed above the permissible limit, 1000 mg/L such as AP2, BW1, BW2 while water sample AP1, AP3 and BW3 were responded below the permissible limit , is mainly due to discharge of domestic sewage and wastes in different water system.

 

SO42−: It was detected by spectrometric method at 420 nm by preparing and comparing with standard curve. 402 mg/L was noted down as maximum amount on sampling spot BW2 while the water sample of AP1 reported as minimum value, 161 mg/L.

 

NO3: It was detected by spectrophotometric method at 410 nm by preparing and comparing with standard curve. 79 mg/L was noted down as maximum amount (on sampling spot AP3) while 42 was minimum value (on sampling spot AP1).

 

CONCLUSION:

The value of some physico-chemical parameter (Temperature, PH, TS, TDS, TSS, alkalinity, Total hardness, BOD, COD, Cl, SO42−, NO3 etc.) in the study of pond waters and bore well waters is higher than the recommended limit is an indication of pollution hazards. Both surface water and underground water are polluted.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are grateful to Mr. S. K Verma, Junior Scientist and Mr. P. B. Patel, Regional officer, Pollution Control Board, Bilaspur for their kind help and providing research facilities to carry out the research work.

 

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Received on 17.05.2011

Modified on 04.06.2011

Accepted on 10.06.2011           

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Research J. Science and Tech.  3(4): July-August. 2011:197-199