This review aims to establish the current knowledge on Corona viruses by highlighting the recent progress that has been made and comparing it to previous knowledge. Good progress has been made but much still remains unknown and this review has identified some gaps in the current knowledge and made suggestions for consideration in future research. Corona viruses are important human and animal pathogens. Corona viruses (CoVs) are a large group of enveloped viruses with a single-strand RNA genome, which continuously circulate in mammals and birds and pose a threat to livestock, companion animals, and humans. CoVs harboured by avian species are classified to the genera gamma- and delta corona viruses. During epidemics, they are the cause of up to one-third of community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections in adults and probably also play a role in severe respiratory infections in both children and adults. Corona viruses (CoVs) primarily cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals but, in the last few decades, have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and, more recently, Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has demonstrated the lethality of CoVs when they cross the species barrier and infect humans. A renewed interest in corona viral research has led to the discovery of several novel human CoVs and since then much progress has been made in understanding the CoV life cycle. Recent studies have expanded on its structural motifs and topology, its functions as an ion-channelling viroporin, and its interactions with both other CoV proteins and host cell proteins. The most progress has been made on SARS-CoV E, highlighting specific structural requirements for its functions in the CoV life cycle as well as mechanisms behind its pathogenesis. Data shows that E is involved in critical aspects of the viral life cycle and that CoVs lacking E make promising vaccine candidates.
Cite this article:
S. D. Mankar, R. S. Jadhav, Kapil Gaikwad. Corona Viruses - Current Knowledge - A Review. Research J. Science and Tech. 2020; 12(2): 163-166. doi: 10.5958/2349-2988.2020.00021.2